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ʱ:2013-10-7 08:42|鿴:7175|:0|:С

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ܣֲ޵

̨ܣ̨е޺֡

ܣֲ
 

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޺ѧUrsus thibetanusʳĿܿƵIJ鶯زаɫΰƣֳΪܡܣϹӣΪŰΪŷĿϺjinl[IPA ʨĩ55]7֡峤150170ף150ǧҡëɫزһ"V"ΰװߡͷԲСǶ̶⣬Ƕ¶ʵǰ5ֺצ׳Ϣɽɭ֣ҪڰӾֱߡӾʳԽӣֲҶѿʵΪʳʱҲѺСࡣĺжϰԣݷУԲڰ˯״̬34·ݳļ䣬7£ÿ̥13СֲŷǴ½Ķ̨塢ձȵصɭֵش
 
ΪȡƤëеĹȲԣԼɵϢɥʧʹ𽥼٣Ŀǰ޺ܴΣ״̬


ͱܣUrsus arctosС׳ͷǽ϶̡زаɫɫְ⣬ȫйɫë沿غɫɫಿëϳë״زẹ̈ǰ淢Ƶǰֺ֫ʺɫͨ֫ߣʽplantigradeҲúվóӾ


ͱСͨ峤140160ף120ǧ160ǧˣؿɴ200粿ƽβԴڼ粿ͷԲǽ϶̣Ƕ¶СԼ1012ףгëպ󼰾ëγԲëԡزһԵĵΰɫɫߡβ̣ܶԼ78סֽ֫ǰֺ֫צʽǺɫǰצںצǰʺǰƵƵֺغɫҺɫëەʺەֺҲغɫҺɫĶë

ë

ëɫй򶫡죬ëijЩ𡣶ĺë϶̣ë45ףë610ףϲĺëϳë46ףë614סزë϶̣һ㶼δ4סëƤһѻһΣëëijΪĹ̡һЩܵëƤûëһЩëƤ붬ʱë

ëɫ

ĺܵëɫΪйɫбDzëʺںɫغɫüϡëزɰɫɫɫëγɡVλUΣֺذ߽СҶʻɫɫëҺڣëڣëҲʻҺɫëɫں֣ͷɫԵغմҺڣ֫ëɫزİװ߼Ϊԡ

ͷ

ܵͷԳʳԲΣȣǰ̺󳤡Dz϶̣ǹdzԼͷڵһϾʳǰĺۿǰԵųݳݲǰԵľСҿͻ֮ľ롣ƽ벻ݡǽϿʹҲﲻǵ֮һ״ͻܷʹͷǺԵÿȧ쵽ʳݵĺ档ұƽǶ̣¾ʳλǰԵĺߡ

ǵ͵ܶʳԣɽë鷵ȵѿΪʳҪ۷ΪʳҪӵȹʵΪʳʳ׼ߡڴҶضȶߡ6~8ҽУһԼ1~2ͷС

Ǵӵͺ600׵ȴֵȴijҶ֣ȴɺӹȹԣ´ҶҶ֡Ҷ콻֡ҶԼ4000ҵɽغ´Ҷ֣ϢдֱǨϰߣļϢڸɽ붬ǰӸߵתƵνϵʹɺӹȹԵ
 

̨U. t. formosanusֲ̨塣

U. t. gedrosianusֲʺͰͻ˹̹

U. t. japonicusֲձ

ëU. t. lanigerֲڰʶϺйϲ

ĴU. t. mupinensisֲйϲ

ָU. t. thibetanusֲϲźӡ֧ǡ

U. t. ussuricusֲϲйͳʰ뵺

ֲ

޺ϲں10003000׵ɽ־ס˶ǨƵͺεǵķֲΪǶйձӰͰͻ˹̹ԽϺֲֶ̩ŷǴ½Ķ̨塢ձȵصɭֵش
 

ͱܣUrsus arctosС׳ͷǽ϶̡زаɫɫְ⣬ȫйɫë沿غɫɫಿëϳë״زẹ̈ǰ淢Ƶǰֺ֫ʺɫͨ֫ߣʽplantigradeҲúվóӾ
 
Ⱥ
 
йݹƺֺ10001500ͷϲ٣дһ飻ĴֲܷϹ㣬Ҳ࣬ĴΧɽءϼذɽƹԭϡ㶫Լ㽭ʡҰȺԼ820012500ͷܣָ֣طֲϴ󣬰ɽຣϲȺ25003500ͷ̨Ѻ٣ϵϵѶ겻ټѾˣйܵҰȺΪ1200018000ͷ߹Ҳ2ͷ

Σԭ

ʩǽܵܲƷȼ٣Ӷóסݹʺ͹ҷɱ֣Щûеõʵʩ1979ѱΣҰֲֹó׹Լ¼һְͻ˹̹ܣUrsus thibetanus gedrosianusڰͻ˹̹ϲ·֧ɺ֣ΪȱΣ1996Ȼ˺ɫ¼Ͱͻ˹̹ΪȱΣһЭָdzС֡

ԺֻձͶ˹ǺϷġ˹ÿɱ75100ͷܣƷǷɱÿԼ500ͷܡձƽÿҲɱԼ500ͷܣ2080ԵȤ٣ɱһֱڻ½Ȼÿ10002000ͷɱʱ4000ͷɱܵķʹǹȦס

ʩ

ڴңܱΪܱ֡磬йҰﱻӡȱҰﱣ븽һںָΪҹż329ţڵĻƲҲΪһΣҰձֱڱΣҰֲó֤ķɲȡȻǵܵƵȡȻ⡣һ֣⣩ÿһңΪһ㱣ζţʱܱɱڰ޺ܱΪܱ֣һڸùԺó׶ֹ


ȻIUCN 2012Σɫ¼ver 3.1ΣVU[7]롶ʢٹԼCITES񼶱

йص㱣ȼ
 

̨

 

̨


̨ѧUrsus thibetanus formosanusũ/tumað/޺̨֣ܵʹ׳ͷԲ̣СdzԲβ̡Լ50200ǧˣ峤120180סȫԴֲڵĺɫëëر𳤣ɳ10ףǰ˰ɫǰĻưɫVλΰǫ̛DZ׼ʳԶֲʳΪԵʳӣֲѿҶʵԼࡢ桢ϺзࡢࣻҲھѺͷ䳲̨ѴȺ࣬ų̂ɽ1000~3500׵ɽΧɴ50ƽ̨ĿǰִȺ࣬ų̂ɽ1000-3500׵ɽΧɴ50ƽ


̨޺̨֣ܵĺܣ2001걻ѡΪ̨ߴԵҰ̨½ĶҲΨһ̨ԭܡ

ڽʮؿϢɥʧ̨ܵ½С1989̨塶ҰﱣֱΪΣǵķֲں1000-3500׸ߵɽϡ

 
̨ܼΪǿ׳峤120-170ף60-70ףؿ200ͷԲΡ̡۾СDzܳͷԼ26-35׳ͷΧԼ40-60ס8-12ףDz״񹷣ϰ߳ƺΪܡβͶ̣ͨ10ס帲֣ŨܶйĺëھëԳ10׳򥲿ĩǰɫģؿлɫɫëV͡µ״ӢҲСܡMoon Bearijƺ

Ϊ[༭]̨ʳԶȻdz桢С⣬ҪʳֲҪҶӡˮֲĸɽҹ԰¼ĺʳϲʶֲˮﶬԸ֬Ĺʵҡ˽Ҫչ֮⣬Ƕӵģǿ
 
´޺̨ܲͬܲߣһƽ54-57%ʱڻﶬߴ60%Լ47%ļĻʱҪڰ죬ﶬĹʵʱҹࡣ

̨ܲҲӾҲ׾DZܵٶÿСʱ30-40׳ࡣ

ܾܿйԣǼûԭ¹ࡣDZԲʷܳҲͨᾡܱܿࡣΪ̨ܷdzϡ٣ҰѾѷ֡޵Ŀ¼Уܻ᳷ֳҰܣõİ취DZְͳŵ뿪ά־źܣ˵õIJԡ

ֳ

̨ǶӶĸڲܵʱ⣬ûй̶ǵĽں̣ܶβĸܼ죬Ǿ͸Իصĸ3-4ʱչԳ죬4-5꣬ͨĸһꡣͨ£6-7¡Сͨ12µ¼

ĸÿ̥1-3ֻСܣιԼ6£ܻĸԼֱ꣬һζСܡγ̨Լķֳڡ

Σ

19982000깲15ֻɽҹ԰̨ܱװߵȦĿܵ¼dz٣û֤֤жֻ̨ܴڡ1989꿪ʼ̨ܾʽ뱣Կû˽̨ܵΣȻڡ겶׽15ֻУڵ壬8ֻɥʧ˽ֺǽơ

1989̨̨塶Ļʲ淨Σڹ롶پҰֲó׹ԼCITESĸ¼IֹʼκβƷκʽĽף̨ҲȻ˵ġIUCNɫ¼Ѿ׾֡
 

޺

 

޺

 
޺ѧUrsus americanusڱ޵һܿĶֲΧӰ˹ϲһֱī籱39ݺ͵ļô»ӵʡݡʳٷ֮ʮΪֲĿǰҪڱ޵ĸҹ԰ɽ䡣ݹƣδǰϰֻȫǰһȼٵʮֻڴԼӵʮֻ˶ֶ̡֫ǵ峤Լ120220ףܱĸܴܶࡣǵɫк֣ܶ޺ɫƫԺɫΪࣻɫƫdzëɫɫdzءɫڼôе߸ױʡаĺ̰ɫĸ壬Ϊܡ˹ӵ޺ɫëijԱҲ˳ΪܡִܡܿеСܡִ½ʳ⶯е壬ܡܡϻʨʳ⶯
 

ܴոߣֶ̡֫ԴԼ60200Լ68180ճĺܴԼ200450ˡĺϸС۾Բ䡢ӣɴͶβ͡ʹкܳĺëǵëɫֶͬвͬëɫ ȺİɫɿɫɫɫٵĺɫżȻҲЩͻİزֻú֫վߣһ㶼֫վߡɻڽŵױƽ߻֫Ҳǰ֫Գǵֻǿ׳צʱ˺ѣڶǵǰƸɱһֻ޳¹

Ϣغͻ
 
ϲɭֺ͹ԣ糱ʪݵءɽչӰɽбҲڽϳʪӲľҶɭ֡ڶߺĴ죬ǻĵбʳ֮ᵽͶĸб¡óܵĸԼͱȹܣһΣʱϣɭֵΪ߻ȡڶ춬ߣԲľʯ¡ӵ̱ߡɽdzݵؽѨ

죬ÿֳڴУ67£ھҪڶڼſʼɳʱʳﲻȡ֬άԼô̥᲻ٷͨ12³˫̥Ҳܳ4̥ټ״ֻͨһֻܡܳʱ嶫ڴůͺ󣬺ܿʼ뿪ѨҲͰ档оΣգͻЩϡͨ79¶̣׸һ2궬ѶܵȫʳļܣҺʳҶѨںʱұӻůͱܿΣա

ʳԶʳﷶΧ㷺ҪʳΪֲ̱ݱֲˮľĹʵӡҲ棬磺
 
ľ

Ʒ

۷


ܣܽϲ˵ڱܹʱȽװܶදܺٻ޹ʹʳǺͳָڱĹȥ100ֻ꣬56ɱĸ

ܳԺܶ͵ֲͼʾʾ˲ͬϢؾסĺܣɴԭɭֶ

(Quercus spp.) Ĺʵӡ

(Corylus spp.) Ĺʵӡ

ɽq (Sorbus spp.)


ˮľ (Cornus spp.)

ʯİľ

kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos spp.)

Сݮ (Viburnum spp.)

ݮͺڹ (Vaccinium spp.)

ݮľݮ (Rubus spp.)

ҰǾޱĹʵ (Rosa spp.)

ݮ (Ribes spp.)

(Aralia nudicaulis)

(Polygonum alaskanum)

ȶ (Lupinus spp.)

½ľ ( Phytolacca americana)

Ӳ (Galium boreale)

ֲ (Pedicularis spp.)

(Ledum groenlandicus)

ݿݮ (Rhamnus californicus)

squawroot (Conopholis americana)

ѹӢ (Taraxacum officinale)

ޣ (Trifolium spp.)

(Cirsium spp.)

ں (Juglans nigra)

ݮ (Shepherdia canadensis)

lomatium (Lomatium spp.)

cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum)

ɹ

ӺĹʵӡ(Castanea dentata, C. pumila)

Ұ (Vitis riparia, V. labrusca)

Ұݮ (Fragaria virginiana, F. californica)


ɽֲ mast, including pecans (Carya spp.)

ľ (Asimina triloba)

(Diospyros virginiana)

Ұӣ (Prunus spp.)

Ұƻ (Malus sylvestris)

ɽë mast ( Fagus grandifola, F. mexicana)

(Sassafras albidum)

ӹľֲĹʵ (Sambucus canadensis)

⣬Ҳ㡢ǿơˮϺѲ԰ѡũҲ˽˷ݺ͹˾ѺͷͲʳȻʳﲻʱżȻҲᲶʳɱܵİϻȶ

ʷ
 
޺ܵĸϰԼֱ̬Ϊ˽⡣20֮ǰЩܱΪޣʳսƷ϶ɱDZΪаҰ޻òƷֱںܶطʼйںܵҲΪƤëļֵɱӢֱʹƤƳñ⵽ñԭΪƤ

ǣҲΪ޹ϲ׺̩ܾΪͳ¶ࡤ˹ܾɱ档ںܱΪһҪƷ֣Ϊǹʼ۵һҪ㣬رڷкܶĽ⡣ܵķֳԵؽϵͣDZСĹƣһЩĿٺϢزĵ

ܵԻʳϢضı䣬ռ֮Ķ䷢ټͳʱûܵĵطĺܶݾǸӣ֮ǰǺټģΪضijסլũءԺҵɻӰ졣1970ֻ꣬ʣ100ֻܡãĸı䣬ڽطϦݺŦԼĺĿ20031500ֻЩľʼָιʳбҹкܳ򹥻סլͨDzٺܴ࣬ȥʳ󣻶ʳʱ෢ijͻ ЩѧǵĵġͬҲҺͼô󡣹ңʡݺ˵Ĵֹڲ׽ͷżƻɱӵ׽ǣʹļũҵdzЧ

Ұ¶Ӫ

ԭﱻɱôϸıƻ𽥻ָ1970ĴԼ100ֻӵ1500ֻϡ½ӵơͨˣҰһ̶ΣԣҰ¶Ӫʱע

ҪʳڣΪⲻֻϽڣҲ

ʹûķˮ׵ϴʳþߣƽͿܵȣȷûκﵽŵʳۼ

ҪʳΧźҪжδʳܽ档

ҪΪʳ͹ӦƷڳǰȫġһҪùӦƷڳڣβΪԤ֪ǷƵ粣ͳ

Ҫʳʱ·ȥ˯Ѱ⡣

ԣʹܹȥȫʳʳﵽ10պܴ4յϡ

ʣʱҪСģ԰ʣԶӪصָ豸

ζƷζķԵǽ(ΪܻΪЩʳ)һҪӦܴܹޣȻϡĵҪκδζзҩͷζġ

ұȡʳ벻ҪͼȥûءDzֵõĴ򶷡

Ҫιܡ(뵱֪ûʳιʱ)

ͬʱ˳һȷȫƤһֱϵס

ַΧ

޺ܱΪࡢʳĿܿơڱܵ (with their respective ranges) :
 
ֲ

Ursus americanus altifrontalis ɼôʫʡвݱ½ºݱ˺Ӣױǵ̫ƽ

Ursus americanus amblyceps ݣīݣ¿˹ݺɣݶ벿 ī籱;ݶϲ

Ursus americanus americanus ɴݶɰ˹ϲͶô󵽴¿˹ݡ

Ursus americanus californiensis вɽȣ ոݵϲ

Ursus americanus carlottae ػʺȺͰ˹ݡ

Ursus americanus cinnamomum ɴãɴɴͻݣʢݺͰոݶݶ

Ursus americanus emmonsii ˹ݶϲ

Ursus americanus eremicus ī綫

Ursus americanus floridanus ݣϲͰݡ

Ursus americanus hamiltoni Ŧ졣

Ursus americanus kermodei ʫʡа

Ursus americanus luteolus ¿˹ݶ·ݣϲ

Ursus americanus machetes īб

Ursus americanus perniger ˹ݵĻΰ뵺

Ursus americanus pugnax ˹ݵİɽȺ

Ursus americanus vancouveri ʫʡ¸绪

ʱķɱ

ڷݵĹ·ÿг50ֻܱɱʱ޺ܵв͵ԣǷɱ͹ӦгĵܵƣΪйձͺ޹ҶΪЩжҩüֵЩݵҲӰ쵽ܺͱܡΣҰֲֹó׹Լ(CITES)һ120ҵˣṩһϵдʩȥֹʼҰֲǷóףⱻ͵ԡ

ںܶͼôĶܳ簲ԾǽӽʮֻܵסڽĿˣմҲֻܡԵڰݣضũҵ棬ʵϿ˵ûܡĿȶӣܻ᷵ЩûסĵطָֻʺϾסϢء кܶľĶݷ֣ĿúѸ٣ڱݣ2004һͳʾд11000ֻܣϦͳƹʱ15,000ܣ(һл)1,500ʹС޵µҲ֤ʵܰõнʮûܳĵ

кܶôࡣ2Ŀdz٣2ֱַ·˹ݺܺͷݺܣҪΪϢɥʧͱʴϼ١ī磬ܵĿҲΪپ֣ùҶɽıIJϢǵ1992꣬ҰЭپֶ﷨·˹ݺΪ"в"ζڲõĽֽܻᱻ֡޺ҲܵӰҵķɱ(·˹ݡݺ͵¿˹)ǺܽӽƷ֡ݺپֶ﷨ܱѡߡ

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